Skin Rash

Skin Rash

Not every rash is an eczema or allergic reaction. Although some may resemble eczema the causes are different

Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a common skin condition that mainly affects your scalp and the face (sides of nose, eyebrows, ears, eyelids) and chest. It causes itchy, red skin and greasy scaly patches. Flares are seen when you are stressed or in a cold, dry environment.  It may be related to a yeast called malassezia within the oil secretion on the skin or to an irregular response of the immune system

Treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis

  • Medicated shampoo
  • Topical steroid or calcineurin inhibitor
  • Topical antifungal

Rosacea is characterised by persistent redness of the central face with flushing and visible blood vessels.  There may be red, pus-filled bumps that resemble acne and eye involvement with eye irritation. Over time the skin in the central face and nose may thickened known as phymatous changes.

Causes of rosacea

  • Exact cause is unknown
  • Demodex mites
  • Exposure to certain climates and UV radiation resulting in vessel wall abnormalities
  • Helicobacter pylori

Trigger factors for rosacea

  • Food : Hot drinks, spicy foods, alcohol, liver, cheese, yogurt
  • Temperature extremes, sunlight, wind
  • Emotions
  • Exercise
  • Hormonal and menopause
  • Drugs that dilate blood vessels eg blood pressure medications
  • Certain cosmetic products

Treatment of rosacea

  • Avoid triggers
  • Topical drugs to reduce redness and the bumps
  • Oral antibiotic and vitamin A (isotretinoin)
  • Light and Laser treatment

Lupus erythematous is an autoimmune skin condition that has a wide spectrum from localised skin  disease, discoid lupus erythematosus(DLE) to wide spread systemic disease, systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE)  which can affect many organs.

Discoid lupus erythematosus is the most common type of chronic cutaneous lupus (CCLE), on the lupus erythematosus spectrum of illnesses. It presents with red, inflamed, coin-shaped patches of skin with a scaling and crusty appearance, most often on the scalp, cheeks, and ears.

Treatment of discoid lupus erythematosus

  • Skin biopsy to ascertain the diagnosis
  • Topical steroids
  • Oral medication like antimalarials ( eg hydroxychloroquine)

Systemic lupus erythematosus affects the body immune system in many parts of the body. Symptoms may be mild to severe. Early symptom is a photosensitive rash (a rash that develops in response to sun exposure), particularly on the face and upper arms. On the face it causes a rash that spreads across the cheeks and nose and spares the forehead (the butterfly rash). Other early symptoms are unexplained fever and pain, swelling, and stiffness of multiple joints. Schedule an appointment with Dr Joyce Lim for the correct diagnosis and treatment

Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus

  • Skin biopsy
  • Blood test including antinuclear factor (ANA)
  • Topical steroids
  • Oral steroids, anti-inflammatory, disease modifying drugs

Pityriasis rosea is a scaly oval shaped skin rash which looks rose coloured or violet. The rash starts in a single patch, the herald patch, and within a week or two, smaller patches appear on the body and limbs. The face, scalp, palms and soles are usually not affected. The rash clears on its own after 6 weeks

Treatment of pityriasis rosea

  • Topical creams
  • Topical steroids

Lichen planus is an itchy rash seen on the wrist, lower back, shins and ankles. They appear as shiny, firm, and reddish-purple bumps. Later the bumps form thick rough scaly patches. The nails, scalp, oral mucosa and genitals are often involved

Treatment of lichen planus

  • Topical
  • Oral steroids and antihistamine
  • Phototherapy